Water crisis: From conflict to cooperation—an overview

Water crisis: From conflict to cooperation—an overview

Publication Year:
Sivakumar, Bellie
Resource Type:
Journal Article
The study attempts to offer a comprehensive account of the continious decline in freshwater available per person and also some important guidelines for advancing research.
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Resource Information


The quantity of freshwater available per person in the world has been and continues to decrease due to a combination of factors, including population increase, water pollution, inadequate planning and management of transboundary and other shared waters, and inefficient operation of water supply and distribution systems. Consequently, there is an increasing potential for water scarcity, crisis and associated conflicts around the world in the future, especially in developing regions, if the current trend in water consumption and management practices continues. In this fast-changing and highly-interconnected world, the problems related to water crisis and conflicts are numerous, complicated and challenging. Efforts to effectively resolve these problems require a clear vision of the future water availability and demand as well as new ways of thinking, developing and implementing water planning and management practices. The present study attempts to offer a comprehensive account of the above issues and also some important guidelines for advancing research in this direction. Assessments of past, present and future statuses of the world’s water are reviewed. Major water initiatives and their targets, successes and failures are highlighted. The urgent need for new ways of thinking, including an integrated framework (encompassing both the “hard sciences” and the “soft sciences”), water education and training and communication of the water issues and our studies to the different stakeholders in the water sector, is also discussed.

Resource Type

Journal Article

Publication Year



Sivakumar, Bellie



University Affiliation

The University of New South Wales, University of California Davis

Business Connect Takeaways

Adequate hydration is essential for maintaining cognitive function, physical performance, and overall health.
The amount of water needed for optimal hydration varies depending on factors such as age, sex, and physical activity level, but a general guideline is to consume at least 2.5 liters of water per day for men and 2.0 liters per day for women
In addition to water, other fluids such as tea, coffee, and milk can contribute to overall hydration status, but some beverages such as alcohol and sugary drinks can have negative effects on hydration and overall health

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