Purification of Contaminated Water with Reverse Osmosis: Effective Solution of Providing Clean Water for Human Needs in Developing Countries

Purification of Contaminated Water with Reverse Osmosis: Effective Solution of Providing Clean Water for Human Needs in Developing Countries

Publication Year:
Wimalawansa, Sunil J.
Affiliated Orgs.:
Cardio Metabolic Institute
Resource Type:
Journal Article
The use of mobile phones to improve maternal and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh, and provides insights into the challenges and opportunities of implementing mHealth interventions in low-resource settings.
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Approximately 25% of the world’s population has no access to clean and safe drinking water. Even though freshwater is available in most parts of the world, many of these water sources contaminated by natural means or through human activity. In addition to human consumption, industries need clean water for product development and machinery operation. With the population boom and industry expansion, the demand for potable water is ever increasing, and freshwater supplies are being contaminated and scarce. In addition to human migrations, water contamination in modern farming societies is predominantly attributable to anthropogenic causes, such as the overutilization of subsidized agrochemicals―artificial chemical fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides. The use of such artificial chemicals continue to contaminate many of the precious water resources worldwide. In addition, other areas where the groundwater contaminated with fluorides, arsenic, and radioactive material occur naturally in the soil. Although the human body is able to detoxify and excrete toxic chemicals, once the inherent natural capacity exceeded, the liver or kidneys, or both organs may fail. Following continual consumption of polluted water, when the conditions are unfavourable and the body’s thresholds are exceeded, depending on the type of pollutants and toxin, liver, cardiac, brain, or renal failure may occur. Thus, clean and safe water provided at an affordable price is not only increasingly recognized, but also a human right and exceedingly important. Most of the household filters and methods used for water purification remove only the particulate matter. The traditional methods, including domestic water filters and even some of the newer methods such as ultra-filtration, do not remove most of the heavy metals or toxic chemicals from water than can harm humans. The latter is achieved with the use of reverse osmosis technology and ion exchange methods. Properly designed reverse osmosis methods remove more than 95% of all potential toxic contaminants in a one-step process. This review explains the reverse osmosis method in simple terms and summarizes the usefulness of this technology in specific situations in developing countries.

Resource Type

Journal Article

Publication Year



Wimalawansa, Sunil J.



Organizational Affiliation

Cardio Metabolic Institute

Business Connect Takeaways

The study demonstrates that the defluorination efficiency of aluminum-based coagulants is influenced by the speciation of aluminum, which affects the formation of aluminum-fluoride complexes and their subsequent removal from the water. The results suggest that Al13 has a higher defluorination efficiency and a wider optimal pH range compared to AlCl3, which could make it a more suitable coagulant for treating water with high fluoride concentrations.
The study highlights the importance of optimizing the dosage and pH of aluminum-based coagulants to achieve maximum defluorination efficiency. The results suggest that excessive dosages of AlCl3 can lead to a decrease in defluorination efficiency due to the hydrolysis of aluminum and the formation of dissolved ions, which can increase the residual aluminum in treated water and reduce the effectiveness of the coagulant.
The study provides insights into the potential use of ESI-TOF-MS as a powerful tool for characterizing the speciation of aluminum in water treatment processes. The results suggest that ESI-TOF-MS can provide detailed information on the formation of aluminum-fluoride complexes and their subsequent removal from the water, which could help optimize the performance of coagulation processes.

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