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Estimating the High-Arsenic Domestic-Well Population in the Conterminous United States

Estimating the High-Arsenic Domestic-Well Population in the Conterminous United States

Publication Year:
2017
Authors:
Ayotte, Joseph D.; Medalie, Laura; Qi, Sharon L.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Nolan, Bernard T.
Language:
English
Affiliated Orgs.:
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), New England Water Science Center, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Water Quality Program
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Summary:
Evaluates the effectiveness of in-line chlorination in improving household stored drinking water quality and reducing child diarrhea in low-income urban settings with intermittent water supply.
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Resource Information

Abstract

Arsenic concentrations from 20 450 domestic wells in the U.S. were used to develop a logistic regression model of the probability of having arsenic >10 μg/L (“high arsenic”), which is presented at the county, state, and national scales. Variables representing geologic sources, geochemical, hydrologic, and physical features were among the significant predictors of high arsenic. For U.S. Census blocks, the mean probability of arsenic >10 μg/L was multiplied by the population using domestic wells to estimate the potential high-arsenic domestic-well population. Approximately 44.1 M people in the U.S. use water from domestic wells. The population in the conterminous U.S. using water from domestic wells with predicted arsenic concentration >10 μg/L is 2.1 M people (95% CI is 1.5 to 2.9 M). Although areas of the U.S. were underrepresented with arsenic data, predictive variables available in national data sets were used to estimate high arsenic in unsampled areas. Additionally, by predicting to all of the conterminous U.S., we identify areas of high and low potential exposure in areas of limited arsenic data. These areas may be viewed as potential areas to investigate further or to compare to more detailed local information. Linking predictive modeling to private well use information nationally, despite the uncertainty, is beneficial for broad screening of the population at risk from elevated arsenic in drinking water from private wells.

Resource Type

Journal Article

Publication Year

2017

Author

Ayotte, Joseph D.; Medalie, Laura; Qi, Sharon L.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Nolan, Bernard T.

Language

English

Organizational Affiliation

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), New England Water Science Center, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Water Quality Program

Relevant Country

United States

Specific Contaminants

Heavy Metals, Arsenic

Business Connect Takeaways

The study investigates the mechanism of fluoride removal by aluminum-based coagulants, specifically AlCl3 and Al13. The study aims to provide insights into the role of aluminum speciation in defluorination and to improve the performance of coagulation processes for fluoride removal.
The study finds that the defluorination efficiency of AlCl3 and Al13 is affected by the pH, initial fluoride concentration, and coagulant dosage. The study also finds that the defluorination mechanism of AlCl3 and Al13 involves both adsorption and precipitation processes.
The study provides insights into the factors that affect the performance of coagulation processes for fluoride removal, such as the aluminum speciation, the pH, and the initial fluoride concentration. The study also suggests that the defluorination efficiency can be improved by optimizing the coagulant dosage and the pH.

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